100 Most Cited Articles in Urban Green and Open Spaces: A Bibliometric Analysis

100 Most Cited Articles in Urban Green and Open Spaces: A Bibliometric Analysis

100 Most cited

Mehdi Rakhshandehroo1, Mohd Johari Mohd Yusof 1*, Nader Ale Ebrahim2, Ali Sharghi3, Roozbeh Arabi1

1Faculty of Design and Architecture, University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

2Centre for Research Services, Institute of Research Management and Monitoring (IPPP), University Of Malaya, Malaysia

3Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University (SRTTU), Teheran, Iran.

Correspondence Author Email: mrakhshandehroo@yahoo.com

Abstract:

Researchers have contributed significantly to the development of the subject of urban green and open spaces (UGOS) in both practical and fundamental aspects. As the number of citations indicates a paper and author’s competency, the online web of science (ISI) was browsed to identify the 100 most cited papers in the field of UGOS from 1980 to 2013. Papers were analyzed for authorship, journal sources, publishers, institutions, countries, year of publication, categories, and author keywords. The total number of citations was compared to the average number of citations per year. From 1105 UGOS papers returned, the maximum number of citations was 212. The top 100 most cited were published from 1988 to 2011, with the majority in 2007. A remarkable distinction was found in the comparison of total citations and average citations per year.  As total linear trend indicates a significant growth in influential articles, urban green and open spaces are a developing subject in landscape and urban planning. This study gives an insight into the readership of UGOS by highlighting key papers.

Keywords:

Open space; green space; citations; landscape; urban planning; bibliometric

 

 

Copy the following to cite this URL:

Rakhshandehroo M, Yusof M. J. M, Ebrahim N. A, Sharghi A, Arabi R. 100 Most Cited Articles in Urban Green and Open Spaces: A Bibliometric Analysis. Curr World Environ 2015;10(2). Available from: http://www.cwejournal.org/?p=12548

 

Introduction

In the context of urban studies, a great number of terms and definitions refer to “urban green and open space” (UGOS) such as open space, green space, public space, and urban greenery. Parks and public gardens, as the most well-known UGOS, are associated with amenity green spaces, having a high quality of landscape design and maintenance. On the other hand, experimental green spaces are often referred to as green feel, which users consciously or unconsciously experience within a certain area. Therefore, the constitution of UGOS varies among different groups of people, for example, between citizens and researchers, where human influences convert natural areas into urban areas, as UGOS is a reflection of human demand for greenery. They can vary from a simple playing field to natural landscape or highly maintained environment and are mostly provided with open access to public, although they may be privately owned.

For the purpose of this study UGOS contains all types of public or private open spaces in urban areas which are completely or mostly covered with vegetation. Water bodies such as rivers, streams and lakes are included but not all green areas outside urban borders. Furthermore, these UGOS play a key role to improve the environment through landscape enhancement, better air quality, and noise reduction, which result in the enhancement of well being and quality of citizens’ life (1); (2).

As a type of biblometric method, citation indices trace the references in a published paper (3). It exhibits how many times a specific article has been cited in other articles  (4). The avenues to evaluate citation tracking have been significantly raised in the past years (3, 5). The frequency of citation of the publication is assumed to display the impact of the  publication, but not essentially their quality  (6). Evidently, citation count alone is not sufficient to provide a complete criteria for judging scientific paper quality, in particular when there exist numerous mechanisms to boost the citation of a paper (7, 8).It should be added that rather than alternative metrics, citations remain a main indicator of the importance of a research output (9-11).

In this study, top-cited articles (12), classic papers (13), top publications (14) or most frequently cited articles (15) in different categories related to UGOS have been studied (16). For a long time now, bibliometric studies have been widely applied to evaluate research papers by measuring scientific preferences (for example, Saracevi & Perk, 1973) and different aspects have been studied such as: annual publication outputs, authors, language, categories, journals, publishers, contributing institutes, and countries, and keywords (17). This study not only evaluates the publication characteristics: language, annual publications, countries, and institutional contributions, and Web of Science categories, but also evaluates researchers’ trends and emphasis by analyzing author keywords in UGOS topic. The result shows the top-cited articles in the field of UGOS.

Methods and Materials

The Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) in 1962 launched the Science Citation Index for scientific journals in a consistent and systematic manner in order to measure citation numbers.  A paper quality is best recognized by citation count (18). According to the number of times a paper has been cited by other authors, the scientific impact of that paper, author, or journal can be evaluated (19). In this bibliometric research, we analyze citation indices to determine the key papers in urban green and open spaces.

The data utilized in this research were derived from the online Web of Science (the Tomson Reuters) on 29 August 2014. In order to find proper keywords an email survey was conducted, with 30 emails sent to experts as respondents and relevant keywords of UGOS investigated. Collected data were analyzed qualitatively and extracted keywords applied to search top articles from Web of Science core collection in terms of topic (including four sections: title, abstract, author keywords, and keyword plus) within the publication year limited to the period from 1980 to 2013, indices: SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, A&HCI, CPCI-S, CPCI-SSH, these keywords were searched: (“green space*”), (greenspace*), (“urban space*” AND green*), (“urban space*” AND open), (“open space*”), (“green infrastructure*” AND Urban), (“public space*”) or (“urban green*” NOT greenhouse). A total of 9,058 publications met the selection criteria. However, these publications contained some documents not closely related to UGOS, therefore the result was refined by Web of Science Categories:  Urban Studies. A total of 1,105 documents were therefore determined.

Citation statistics produced for a time frame shorter than three years may not be sufficiently stable (20, 21). Therefore, the documents from 2012 to 2014 were put aside. Furthermore, since the target of the data collection is the 100 most-cited articles most relevant to UGOS and, all 1105 documents were arranged according citations, and their abstracts studied. From 139 first documents, 39 which were not specific to UGOS were excluded, to reach 100 most cited articles that were analyzed statistically by Microsoft Excel. The details of the data collection process are illustrated in Fig.1.

Figure 1: Data collection process to search UGOS related researches

Click here to View figure

 

Figure 2: Number of papers per year 

Click here to View figure

 

Results and Discussion

Paper and authors’ citations

Table 1, presents the list of 100 most-cited papers in urban green and open spaces that give an idea of readership. The paper by Chiesura (22), which explains the role of urban parks in a sustainable city, appears to be the most important, with a total of 212 citations. The nearest competitor is a literature review (23) about promoting the ecosystem and human health by using green infrastructure in urban areas, with a total of 183 citations. Besides that, the first and third top cited articles are review papers. These results are on the corresponding general belief that review articles had the highest number of citations (24, 25).

Table 1: Top 100 article in urban green and open spaces (UGOS)

R First Author No. R First Author No. R First Author No.
1 Chiesura, 2004 212 35 Jim, 2003 61 66 Eliasson,  2007 41
2 Tzoulas, 2007 183 36 Barbosa, 2007 58 66 Fabos, 2004 41
3 Burgess, 1988 140 36 Colding, 2007 58 66 Jorgensen, 2002 41
4 Luttik, 2000 119 36 Breuste, 2004 58 71 Grahn, 2010 40
5 Valentine, 1996 118 36 Van, 2003 58 72 Sandstrom, 2006 38
6 Ruddick, 1996 108 40 Kong, 2006 57 72 Khakee, 2006 38
7 Pauleit,  2005 101 40 Cook, 2002 57 72 Breffle, 1998 38
8 Tratalos, 2007 98 42 James, 2009 55 75 Daniels, 1991 37
9 Whitford,  2001 97 42 Chang,  2007 55 76 Comber, 2008 36
10 Bengston, 2004 95 44 Carles, 1999 54 77 Troy, 2008 35
11 Tyrvainen, 2007 85 45 Gunnarsson  2007 53 77 Tajima, 2003 35
11 Tyrvainen, 1997 85 45 Walsh, 2007 53 77 Linehan, 1995 35
13 Bowler, 2010 80 45 Shafer, 2000 53 80 Balram, 2005 34
14 Thompson, 2002 79 45 Southworth, 1997 53 80 Daniels, 2005 34
15 Anderson, 2006 78 49 Sousa, 2003 52 80 Arendt, 2004 34
15 Jackson, 2003 78 50 Jim, 2004 51 80 Bondi, 1998 34
15 Tyrvainen, 1998 78 51 Jim, 2006a 50 84 Lyytimaki, 2009 32
18 Yeoh, 1998 77 52 Gill, 2008 49 84 Maruani, 2007 32
19 Atkinson, 2003 76 53 Shultz, 2001 48 86 Dobbs, 2011 31
19 Zerbe, 2003 76 54 Banerjee, 2001 47 87 Nagendra, 2010 30
21 Morancho, 2003 74 55 Flores, 1998 46 87 Gordon, 2009 30
22 Sandstrom, 2006 73 56 Allen, 2006 45 87 Nordh, 2009 30
22 Wolch, 2005 73 56 Ozguner, 2006 45 87 Haire, 2000 30
24 Mathieu, 2007 72 58 Hamin, 2009 44 91 Jorgensen, 2007 29
24 Heynen, 2006 72 58 Gobster, 2004 44 91 Zhang, 2006 29
26 Kong, 2007 70 58 Goss, 1996 44 93 Zhang & Wang, 2006 28
27 Matsuoka, 2008 68 61 (Buijs, 2009) 43 93 Walmsley, 2006 28
28 Jim, 2006b 66 61 (Lafortezza, 2009) 43 93 Kim, 2005 28
28 Acharya, 2001 66 61 (Julier, 2005) 43 93 Kuhn, 2003 28
28 Soule, 1991 66 61 (Mortberg, 2000) 43 93 Schmelzkopf, 200 28
31 Li, 2005 65 65 (Varsanyi, 2008) 42 93 Johnston, 1997 28
32 Irwin, 2004 64 66 (Jim, 2009) 41 99 Schipperijn, 2010 27
32 Hess, 2002 64 66 (Schilling, 2008) 41 99 Loukaitousideris, 1995 27
34 Gobster, 2001 62

 

The top 100 papers were published between 1988 and 2011 (Fig 2). During this period the number of papers increased consistently from 1 to 5. This number remained unchanged between 2000 and 2002. The trend is unsteady until the two years of 2006 and 2007 which showed the highest number of top-cited papers with 11 and 13 instances. The citation rate gradually decreased over the years that followed. This reduction over the last few years would seem logical  because citation of scientific papers normally starts one or two years after publication and reaches peak after about 10 years (26). All in all, total linear trend indicates an increasing consideration for UGOS.

Table 2 ranks the authors according the total citations they have received. It also demonstrates the two top cited articles for each author.  Jim, CY with 269 citations is placed first, followed by Tyrvainen, L with 248 and after him Ennos, AR obtained with 247 citations.

While our top 100 papers have 226 authors, only 20 authors wrote more than one article (see Table 3). Jim, CY is the highest ranked with five publications and a total of 269 citations which contain one paper with single author and four papers as first author. Tyrvainen, L; Pauleit, S; Chen, WY; Ennos, R and Handley, JF each contributed three papers. According to Table 2, single authors (Jim, CY; Tyrvainen, L and Kong, FH) published only three articles.

Table 2: The first 10 authors with the most citations

Rank Author Number of publications Total citations First article citations Second article citations
1 Jim, CY 5 269 66 61
2 Tyrvainen, L 3 248 85 85
3  Ennos, AR 3 247 101 97
4  Niemela, J 2 238 183 55
5  Hitchmough, J 2 238 183 55
6 Chiesura, A 1 212 212 0
7 Jorgensen, A 2 201 97 55
8  Chen, WY 3 157 66 50
9  Davies, RG 2 156 98 58
10  Fuller, RA 2 156 98 58

 

Table 3: Authors with 2 publications and more

Rank Author Number of publications Single Author First Author Collaborative Authors
1 Jim, CY 5 1 4 4
2 Tyrvainen, L 3 1 2 2
3  Pauleit, S 3 __ 1 2
4  Chen, WY 3 __ __ 3
4  Ennos, R 3 __ __ 3
4  Handley, JF 3 __ __ 3
7 Gobster, PH 2 1 1 1
8 Kong, FH 2 __ 2 2
8 Jorgensen, A 2 __ 2 2
8 Sandstrom, UG 2 __ 2 2
11  Angelstam, P 2 __ __ 2
11  Niemela, J 2 __ __ 2
11  Zipperer, WC 2 __ __ 2
11  Davies, RG 2 __ __ 2
11  Nakagoshi, N 2 __ __ 2
11  Fuller, RA 2 __ __ 2
11  Gaston, KJ 2 __ __ 2
11  Hitchmough, J 2 __ __ 2
11  Korpela, K 2 __ __ 2
11  Stigsdotter, UK 2 __ __ 2

 

Journal Sources and Publishers

Results showed that these papers were published in 16 journals. The most popular journal was Landscape and Urban Planning with a total of 62 citations. This is more than nine times the citation number of its nearest competitor. Seven papers were published in the journal of Urban Geography and six in both journals of J AM Planning Assoc. Total citations and also impact factor of each journal were extracted from the website of the Journal Citation Report on 5/10/2014 and presented in Table 4. The journal impact factor is one of the most important measures that indicate the journal’s significance within the related fields (27).The impact factor was first introduced  by Garfield and Sher (1963) and has been widely applied to evaluate and rank journals (17). According to Table 4, the average impact factor is 1.46 which indicates the majority of these papers were published in the journals with high impact factors. Therefore, in order to attain a high number of citations, it is essential to publish papers in the English language as it appears to be a unique literary language used in UGOS and also to choose a high impact factor journal, which is advanced in science and continued development (28).

Table 5  shows the publishers of 100 top articles. From all of the publishers, Elsevier Science BV individually published 64% of papers and the other 15 publishers only contributed to 36% of papers.

Table 4: Journal source

Journal Source Number of Papers Rank Total Citations Impact Factor
Landscape and urban planning 62 1 6203 2.606
Urban geography 7 2 923 1.746
Journal of the American planning association 6 3 1725 1.489
URBAN studies 6 3 4896 1.33
URBAN FORESTRY & URBAN greening 5 5 821 2.133
Journal of real estate finance and economics 2 6 1103 0.697
REGIONAL SCIENCE AND URBAN economics 2 6 1579 0.971
Cities 2 6 1296 1.836
Journal of urban economics 1 9 3094 1.888
HOUSING studies 1 9 1038 0.895
URBAN AFFAIRS review 1 9 1019 1.293
Journal of urban technology 1 9 155 0.729
HABITAT international 1 9 1051 1.577
Journal of planning education and research 1 9 815 1.383
Journal of planning literature 1 9 408 1.522
Journal of urban affairs 1 9 673 1.298

 

Table 5: Publishers

Rank Publisher Number of Papers
1 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV 64
2 V H WINSTON & SON INC 6
3 ELSEVIER GMBH, URBAN & FISCHER VERLAG 5
4 AMER PLANNING ASSOC 4
4 CARFAX PUBL CO 4
6 ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD 2
6 ROUTLEDGE TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD 2
6 SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC 2
6 ELSEVIER SCI LTD 2
6 KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL 2
6 AMER PLANNING ASSN 2
12 ASSOC COLLEGIATE SCH PLANNING 1
12 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD 1
12 CARFAX PUBLISHING 1
12 ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE 1
12 BLACKWELL PUBLISHERS 1

 

Countries and Institutes

The result shows that most of the papers originated from 22 countries, with the majority originating from the USA [37] followed by UK [19]. Table 6 shows the countries that have at least two papers. Previous authors have hypothesized that American authors are biased toward locally published papers when citing references (29) which may possibly explain our findings. If continents are analyzed, 40 papers come from Europe, 39 from North America and 21 from Asia Pacific (Table 6).

Table 6: Number of publication of countries which have two or more publications

Country Number of publications Rank
USA 37 1
UK 19 2
Sweden 7 3
China 7 3
Finland 4 5
Australia 3 6
Netherlands 3 6
Denmark 2 8
Canada 2 8
Spain 2 8
Germany 2 8
Japan 2 8

 

The result also shows that from 80 universities and institutions that published top papers, 68 have merely a single paper and the others contributed two papers or more as shown in Table 7. University of Sheffield and University of Hong Kong are the most fruitful with five papers followed by US Forest Serv. and University of Massachusetts with three papers.

Table 7:  Number of publication of institute which have two or more publications

Rank University Number of publications
1 Univ Sheffield 5
1 Univ Hong Kong 5
3 Us Forest Serv 3
3 Univ Massachusetts 3
5 Univ Manchester 2
5 Hiroshima Univ 2
5 Univ Salford 2
5 Univ Colorado 2
5 Arizona State Univ 2
5 Univ So Calif 2
5 Univ Joensuu 2
5 Univ Wageningen & Res Ctr 2

 

Document Types and Categories

The distribution of document types identified by ISI was analyzed. These papers consist of four document types, and articles are dominant with 83 documents, followed by review articles (9); Proceedings Papers [7] and editorial materials [1]. The distribution related to the language of the articles also was analyzed and all these papers are published in English (Table 7).

Regarding Web of Science categories (Table 8) all papers are categorized under urban studies because of the refinement during data collection. Environmental studies [77] and geography [69] are in the second and third ranks. This result indicates most papers are considered under two or more categories.

Table 8: Web of science categories 

Rank Web of Science categories Number of papers
1 Urban Studies 100
2 Environmental Studies 77
3 Geography 69
4 Ecology 62
4 Geography, Physical 62
6 Planning & Development 9
7 Forestry 5
7 Economics 5
7 Plant Sciences 5
10 Business, Finance 2

 

Author keyword

In recent years, bibliometric analysis of author keywords has been able to provide a reasonably sophisticated picture of the papers’ subjects (17). In order to illuminate research trends, frequency of author keywords should be analyzed quantitatively (table 9). Keywords according to the authors’ views were used not more than 19 times (green space*) which indicated that UGOS papers have involved a wide range of research focuses and diverse scientific literature. Except the author’s keywords “green space”, “open space” and “urban green space” related to the searching keywords, three most frequently applied author keywords are: “urban planning”[10], “urban park*”[6] and “land use”[6]. On the other hand, all of these key words are collocations of two or three words, therefore they have been separated and analyzed for the second round and this time the frequency of the first key word was urban [71].

Table 9: The most frequently used author keywords

No Keywords Number of repetitions Rank Separated Keywords Number of repetitions Rank
1 green space* 19 1 urban 71 1
2 urban planning 10 2 planning 32 2
3 open space* 7 3 green 31 3
4 urban park* 6 4 space* 30 4
5 urban green space* 6 4 landscape 20 5
6 land use 6 4 City* 20 5
7 urban forest 5 7 land 17 7
8 urban ecology 4 8 environment* 16 8
9 public health 4 8 ecology* 16 8
10 compact city 3 10 value* 15 10
11 environmental psychology 3 10 nature* 11 11
12 Green Infrastructure 3 10 ecosystem* 11 11
13 urban forestry 3 10 conservation 10 13
14 Urban biodiversity 3 10 open 9 14
15 ecosystem services 3 10 hedonic 9 14
16 landscape ecology 3 10 greenway* 9 14
17 landscape metrics 3 10 public 8 17
18 Contingent valuation 3 10 Design 8 17
19 park* 8 17

 

Study Limitation

It should be noted that this study has some methodological limitations. Firstly, we applied online ISI web of knowledge, so the papers not indexed in this database are ignored. Secondly, all journals have specific approaches to reject or accept submitted manuscripts; therefore the particular journals which have stricter selection criteria may affect the quality of their publications. That is why 62% of 100 top cited articles have been found in one article. Thirdly, citation count might encounter some problems such as authors’ preference for self-citation, or cite free full access articles, review papers, well known authors, papers by colleagues as well as cite papers from the journal they are going to submit their work to. Finally, publication year influences citation index and the number of citations for each paper; therefore recent papers do not have sufficient time to reach a high citation rate in comparison with older ones.

Table 10: Comparison of average number of citations per year and total citation

Document Title Year Published Total citations citation per year Rank for total citations Rank for citation per year
Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using green infrastructure: a literature review. 2007 183 26.14 2 1
The role of urban parks for a sustainable city. 2004 212 21.20 1 2
Urban greening to cool town and cities: a systematic review of the empirical evidence. 2010 80 20.00 13 3
Urban form, biodiversity potential and ecosystem services 2007 98 14.00 8 4
Tools for mapping social values of urban woodlands and green areas 2007 85 12.14 11 5
People needs in the urban landscape: Analysis of Landscape and Urban Planning contributions 2008 68 11.33 27 6
Modeling the environmental impacts  of urban land use and land cover change – a study in Merseyside, UK 2005 101 11.22 7 7
Toward an integrated understanding of green space in European built environment. 2009 55 11.00 42 8
A framework for developing urban forest ecosystem services and good indicators. 2011 31 10.33 86 9
Mapping private gardens in urban areas using object-oriented techniques and very high-resolution satellite imagery. 2007 72 10.29 24 10

 

Conclusion

This study can be considered the first report on the top cited papers in UGOS. The priority of the papers was arranged according to the citations they have received. Total citations were extracted from Web of Science Core Collection Times Cited Count but analyzing merely total citation is a potential flaw as it gives a bias to the older papers because during a longer time they would have accumulated a high number of citations which may be of less significance and influence than a more recent paper. Therefore, the average number of citations per year is used as a yardstick against which to reflect the importance of articles.

A comparison was made between the total number of citations and the average number of citations per year, of the top 10 articles (Table 10) emerging 42 and 86 ranking of total citations, between top 10 high ranks of average citation per year indicates how different these two criteria can be. From a total of 1,105 UGOS papers returned using our methods, the paper with the maximum number of average citations per year [26.14] was  written by Tzoulas (23), which has the second highest number of total citations [183]. The second highest number of average citations per year is the paper written by Chiesura (22), which achieved first rank with a total citation of 212.

Conflict of Interest

We confirm that no authorities have any conflict of interest in the process of producing this paper. No authors have a personal relationship with other organizations or people that could influence this research inappropriately and also there has not been any financial benefit attached to this paper.

References

  1. Maruani T, Amit-Cohen I. Open space planning models: A review of approaches and methods. Landscape and Urban Planning. 2007;81(1-2):1-13. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.01.003. PubMed PMID: WOS:000247084200001.
  2. Bowler DE, Buyung-Ali L, Knight TM, Pullin AS. Urban greening to cool towns and cities: A systematic review of the empirical evidence. Landscape and Urban Planning. 2010;97(3):147-55. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2010.05.006. PubMed PMID: WOS:000281189100001.
  3. Ale Ebrahim N, Salehi H, Embi MA, Danaee M, Mohammadjafari M, Zavvari A, et al. Equality of Google Scholar with Web of Science Citations: Case of Malaysian Engineering Highly Cited Papers. Modern Applied Science. 2014;8(5):63-9. doi: 10.5539/mas.v8n5p63.
  4. Fooladi M, Salehi H, Yunus MM, Farhadi M, Aghaei Chadegani A, Farhadi H, et al. Do Criticisms Overcome the Praises of Journal Impact Factor? Asian Social Science. 2013;9(5):176-82. Epub 182. doi: 10.5539/ass.v9n5p176.
  5. Kear R, Colbert-Lewis D. Citation searching and bibliometric measures: Resources for ranking and tracking. College & Research Libraries News. 2011;72(8):470-4.
  6. Brandt JS, Downing AC, Howard DL, Kofinas JD, Chasen ST. Citation classics in obstetrics and gynecology: the 100 most frequently cited journal articles in the last 50 years. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2010;203(4):355. e1-. e7.
  7. Chattopadhyay A, editor Ethics of scientific publication: (Mal)-practices and Consequentialism. Ethics in Science, Technology and Engineering, 2014 IEEE International Symposium on; 2014 23-24 May 2014.
  8. Ale Ebrahim N, Salehi H, Embi MA, Habibi Tanha F, Gholizadeh H, Motahar SM, et al. Effective Strategies for Increasing Citation Frequency. International Education Studies. 2013;6(11):93-9. doi: 10.5539/ies.v6n11p93.
  9. Ale Ebrahim N, Salehi H, Embi MA, Habibi Tanha F, Gholizadeh H, Motahar SM. Visibility and Citation Impact. International Education Studies. 2014;7(4):120-5. doi: 10.5539/ies.v7n4p120.
  10. Shotton D. Publishing: Open citations. Nature. 2013;502(7471):295-7.
  11. Priem J. Scholarship: Beyond the paper. Nature. 2013;495(7442):437-40. doi: 10.1038/495437a.
  12. Bentler PM. On the fit of models to covariances and methodology to the< em> Bulletin.</em>. Psychological bulletin. 1992;112(3):400.
  13. Garfield E. Highly cited articles. 26. Some classic papers of late 19th and early 20th centuries. INST SCI INFORM INC 3501 MARKET ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19104; 1976.
  14. Korevaar J. Validation of bibliometric indicators in the field of mathematics. Scientometrics. 1996;37(1):117-30.
  15. Garfield E. WHICH JOURNALS ATTRACT MOST FREQUENTLY CITED ARTICLES-HERES A LIST OF TOP 15. INST SCI INFORM INC 3501 MARKET ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19104; 1973.
  16. Ho Y-S. Classic articles on social work field in Social Science Citation Index: a bibliometric analysis. Scientometrics. 2014;98(1):137-55.
  17. Fu H-Z, Ho Y-S. Bibliometric analysis of thermodynamic research: A Science Citation Index Expanded-based analysis. 2012.
  18. Bohannon RW, Roberts D. Core journals of rehabilitation: identification through index analysis. Int J Rehabil Res. 1991;14(4):333-6.
  19. Ponce FA, Lozano AM. Highly cited works in neurosurgery. Part I: the 100 top-cited papers in neurosurgical journals: A review. J Neurosurg. 2010;112(2):223-32.
  20. Adams J. Early citation counts correlate with accumulated impact. Scientometrics. 2005;63(3):567-81. doi: 10.1007/s11192-005-0228-9.
  21. Anderson E. JAPANESE FIRMS EMPHASIZE TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT. Chem Eng News. 1992;70(40):46-8. doi: 10.1021/cen-v070n040.p046. PubMed PMID: WOS:A1992JQ73900011.
  22. Chiesura A. The role of urban parks for the sustainable city. Landscape and Urban Planning. 2004;68(1):129-38. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2003.08.003. PubMed PMID: WOS:000220414700009.
  23. Tzoulas K, Korpela K, Venn S, Yli-Pelkonen V, Kazmierczak A, Niemela J, et al. Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using Green Infrastructure: A literature review. Landscape and Urban Planning. 2007;81(3):167-78. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.02.001. PubMed PMID: WOS:000247586100001.
  24. Baltussen A, Kindler CH. Citation classics in critical care medicine. Intens Care Med. 2004;30(5):902-10.
  25. Dubin D, Hafner AW, Arndt KA. Citation classics in clinical dermatologic journals: citation analysis, biomedical journals, and landmark articles, 1945-1990. Arch Dermatol. 1993;129(9):1121.
  26. Marx W, Schier H, Wanitschek M. Citation analysis using online databases: feasibilities and shortcomings. Scientometrics. 2001;52(1):59-82.
  27. Garfield E. The history and meaning of the journal impact factor. Jama. 2006;295(1):90-3.
  28. Bayley M, Brooks F, Tong A, Hariharan K. The 100 most cited papers in foot and ankle surgery. The Foot. 2014;24(1):11-6.
  29. Paladugu R, Schein M, Gardezi S, Wise L. One hundred citation classics in general surgical journals. World J Surg. 2002;26(9):1099-105.

 

Posted in Journal Article, Publications | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Effective Factors for Increasing University Publication and Citation Rate


Masoomeh Shahbazi-Moghadam


University of Technology MARA (UiTM)

Hadi Salehi


Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch

Nader Ale Ebrahim


University of Malaya (UM) – Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, Faculty of Engineering; University of Malaya (UM) – Research Support Unit, Centre of Research Services, Institute of Research Management and Monitoring (IPPP)

Marjan Mohammadjafari


University of Malaya (UM)

Hossein Gholizadeh


University of Malaya (UM) – Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering

June 19, 2015

Asian Social Science, vol. 11, no. 16, pp. 338-348, 2015


Abstract:

Despite the vital role of paper publication and citation in higher education institutions (HEIs), literature on publication exercises is relatively scarce. There are a number of factors which influence the rate of university publications and citations. Accordingly, with a focus on policy perspectives, this paper discusses publication exercises by addressing the factors that can increase or decrease the rate of publication and citation in HEIs. The investigated zones are divided into two macro and micro levels, in which macro level deals with global policy and micro level is related to local and university policies. The effective factors and their relevant criteria are traced in all the aforementioned policies.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 11

Keywords: Academia, Collaboration, Higher Education Institutions, Publication Impact, Citation, University Ranking

JEL Classification: L11, L1, L2, M11, M12, M1, M54, Q1, O1, O3, P42, P24, P29, Q31, Q32, L17

Open PDF in Browser Download This Paper

Date posted: June 25, 2015 ; Last revised: July 2, 2015

Suggested Citation

Shahbazi-Moghadam, Masoomeh and Salehi, Hadi and Ale Ebrahim, Nader and Mohammadjafari, Marjan and Gholizadeh, Hossein, Effective Factors for Increasing University Publication and Citation Rate (June 19, 2015). Asian Social Science, vol. 11, no. 16, pp. 338-348, 2015. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2622372
Posted in Journal Article, Publications | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Scientific Articles on Art Criticism

The Scientific Articles on Art Criticism

The Scientific Articles on Art Criticism

The Scientific Articles on Art Criticism


Mina Hedayat


University of Malaya (UM)

Pegah Jahangiri


University of Malaya (UM)

Aida Torkamani


University of Malaya (UM)

Mahsa Mashayekhi


University of Applied Science and Technology

Sabzali Musa Kahn


University of Malaya (UM)

Nader Ale Ebrahim


University of Malaya (UM) – Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, Faculty of Engineering; University of Malaya (UM) – Research Support Unit, Centre of Research Services, Institute of Research Management and Monitoring (IPPP)

May 16, 2015

Asian Social Science, vol. 11, no. 13, pp. 130-138, 2015


Abstract:

Research has been extremely involved in improving in the art criticism area. These improvements are reflected in scientific articles. This article purposed to investigate the 214 articles in art criticism to explore their main characteristics. These articles published in the Web of Science database of the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) from the period of 1980 till 20 December 2013. Types of articles were article and review which is included in the study. The three top cited (more than 10 times citations) articles in art criticism were published in 1993 and 1999. The 214 articles mean citation rate was 0.87 (SD 2.38) times. Among the various fields, art (58.87%), arts humanities other topics (28.03%), both art and arts humanities other topics (5.14%), both art and education and educational research (2.33%), both art and history (1.40%), art, arts humanities other topics and literature (1.40%), both art and cultural studies (0.93%), both art and philosophy (0.93%), both art and literature (0.46%), and both arts humanities other topics and cultural studies (0.46%) were the most popular fields of research. The results showed that researches were done in the United States had highest citation which was written in English language.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 9

Keywords: citation-classics, art criticism, journal, association, article, bibliometric

JEL Classification: L11, L1, L2, M11, M12, M1, M54, Q1, O1, O3, P42, P24, P29, Q31, Q32, L17

Open PDF in Browser

Download This Paper

Date posted: May 22, 2015

Suggested Citation

Hedayat, Mina and Jahangiri, Pegah and Torkamani, Aida and Mashayekhi, Mahsa and Musa Kahn, Sabzali and Ale Ebrahim, Nader, The Scientific Articles on Art Criticism (May 16, 2015). Asian Social Science, vol. 11, no. 13, pp. 130-138, 2015. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2608851
Posted in Journal Article, Publications | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Does a Long Reference List Guarantee More Citations? Analysis of Malaysian Highly Cited and Review Papers

Does a Long Reference List Guarantee More Citations

Does a Long Reference List Guarantee More Citations?

Does a Long Reference List Guarantee More Citations? Analysis of Malaysian Highly Cited and Review Papers


Nader Ale Ebrahim


University of Malaya (UM) – Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, Faculty of Engineering; University of Malaya (UM) – Research Support Unit, Centre of Research Services, Institute of Research Management and Monitoring (IPPP)

H. Ebrahimian


University Malaya – Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty Science

Maryam Mousavi


University of Malaya – Centre for Product Design and Manufacturing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering

Farzad Tahriri


University of Malaya (UM) – Faculty of Engineering

January 28, 2015

The International Journal of Management Science and Business, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 6-15, 2015


Abstract:

Earlier publications have shown that the number of references as well as the number of received citations are field-dependent. Consequently, a long reference list may lead to more citations. The purpose of this article is to study the concrete relationship between number of references and citation counts. This article tries to find an answer for the concrete case of Malaysian highly cited papers and Malaysian review papers. Malaysian paper is a paper with at least one Malaysian affiliation. A total of 2466 papers consisting of two sets, namely 1966 review papers and 500 highly-cited articles, are studied. The statistical analysis shows that an increase in the number of references leads to a slight increase in the number of citations. Yet, this increase is not statistically significant. Therefore, a researcher should not try to increase the number of received citations by artificially increasing the number of references.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 11

Keywords: H-index, Citation analysis, Bibliometrics, Impact factor, Performance evaluation, Relations between citations and references

JEL Classification: L11, L1, L2, M11, M12, M1, M54, Q1, O1, O3, P42, P24, P29, Q31, Q32, L17

Download This Paper

Date posted: March 4, 2015

Suggested Citation

Ale Ebrahim, Nader and Ebrahimian, H. and Mousavi , Maryam and Tahriri, Farzad, Does a Long Reference List Guarantee More Citations? Analysis of Malaysian Highly Cited and Review Papers (January 28, 2015). The International Journal of Management Science and Business, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 6-15, 2015. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2572789
Posted in Journal Article, Publications | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Nader Ale Ebrahim top cited papers

Virtual teams: A literature review

N Ale Ebrahim, S Ahmed, Z Taha
Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 3 (3), 2653-2669
106 2009
Virtual R&D teams in small and medium enterprises: A literature review

N Ale Ebrahim, S Ahmed, Z Taha
Scientific Research and Essays 4 (13), 1575-1590
73 2009
Virtual Teams for New Product Development: An Innovative Experience for R&D Engineers

N Ale Ebrahim, S Ahmed, Z Taha
European Journal of Educational Studies 1 (3), 109-123
32* 2009
A comparison between two main academic literature collections: Web of Science and Scopus databases

AA Chadegani, H Salehi, MM Yunus, H Farhadi, M Fooladi, M Farhadi, …
arXiv preprint arXiv:1305.0377
28 2013
Virtual R&D teams and SMEs growth: A comparative study between Iranian and Malaysian SMEs

N Ale Ebrahim, S Ahmed, Z Taha
African Journal of Business Management 4 (11), 2368-2379
19 2010
Does Criticism Overcome the Praises of Journal Impact Factor?

M Fooladi, H Salehi, M Md Yunus, M Farhadi, A Aghaei Chadegani, …
Asian Social Science 9 (5), 176-182
18 2013
Critical factors for new product developments in SMEs virtual team

N Ale Ebrahim, S Ahmed, Z Taha
African Journal of Business Management 4 (11), 2247-2257
17 2010
Effective Strategies for Increasing Citation Frequency

NA Ebrahim, H Salehi, MA Embi, FH Tanha, H Gholizadeh, SM Motahar, …
International Education Studies 6 (11), p93
15 2013
The Effectiveness of Virtual R&D Teams in SMEs: Experiences of Malaysian SMEs

NA Ebrahim, SHA Rashid, S Ahmed, Z Taha
arXiv preprint arXiv:1207.6832
15 2012
Innovation and R&D activities in virtual team

N Ale Ebrahim, S Ahmed, Z Taha
European Journal of Scientific Research 34 (3), 297-307
15 2009
SMEs; Virtual research and development (R&D) teams and new product development: A literature review

NA Ebrahim, S Ahmed, Z Taha
International Journal of the Physical Sciences 5 (7), 916-930
14 2010
Does it matter which citation tool is used to compare the h-index of a group of highly cited researchers?

H Farhadi, H Salehi, MM Yunus, A Aghaei Chadegani, M Farhadi, …
Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 7 (4), 198-202
13 2013
Modified stage-gate: A conceptual model of virtual product development process

NA Ebrahim, S Ahmed, Z Taha
arXiv preprint arXiv:1210.7482
13 2012
Posted in News | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Equality of Google scholar with web of science citations

Research Tools founder: Dr. Nader Ale Ebrahim

Research Tools founder: Dr. Nader Ale Ebrahim

Modern Applied Science

Volume 8, Issue 5, 2014, Pages 63-69

Equality of Google scholar with web of science citations: Case of Malaysian engineering highly cited papers  (Article)

Research Support Unit, Centre of Research Services, Institute of Research Management and Monitoring (IPPP), University of Malaya, Malaysia
Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityNajafabad, Isfahan, Iran
Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)Bangi, Malaysia
Faculty of Agriculture, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityRoudehen, Iran
Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityKerman, Iran
Center for Software Technology and Management, Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaUKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
Perdana School of Science, Technology and Innovation Policy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia

Abstract

This study uses citation analysis from two citation tracking databases, Google Scholar (GS) and ISI Web of Science, in order to test the correlation between them and examine the effect of the number of paper versions on citations. The data were retrieved from the Essential Science Indicators and Google Scholar for 101 highly cited papers from Malaysia in the field of engineering. An equation for estimating the citation in ISI based on Google scholar is offered. The results show a significant and positive relationship between both citation in Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science with the number of versions. This relationship is higher between versions and ISI citations (r = 0.395, p<0.01) than between versions and Google Scholar citations (r = 0.315, p<0.01). Free access to data provided by Google Scholar and the correlation to get ISI citation which is costly, allow more transparency in tenure reviews, funding agency and other science policy, to count citations and analyze scholars’ performance more precisely.

Author keywords

Bibliometrics; Citation analysis; Equivalence; Evaluations; Google scholar; H-index; High cited; ISI web of science; Research tools

ISSN: 19131844Source Type: Journal Original language: English
DOI: 10.5539/mas.v8n5p63Document Type: Article
Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education
Posted in Journal Article, Publications | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

TCFEX – The Perfect Stimulus For Academic Enhancement

Whether you find yourself in the early stages of a graduate proposal, finishing your thesis, publishing journal papers, dealing with your h-index, or even trying to improve the quality of the research of the students under your supervision, you will find that TCFEX effectively enhancing your efforts every step of the way. Join TCFEX and discover new heights in your research program today!

TCFEX

TCFEX

Posted in News | Leave a comment

Ethical and Unethical Methods of Plagiarism Prevention in Academic Writing


Kaveh Bakhtiyari


University of Duisburg-Essen

Hadi Salehi


Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch

Mohamed Amin Embi


Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia – Faculty of Education

Masoud Shakiba


National University of Malaysia

Azam Zavvari


National University of Malaysia

Masoomeh Shahbazi-Moghadam


Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)

Nader Ale Ebrahim


Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya (UM); Research Support Unit, Centre of Research Services, Institute of Research Management and Monitoring (IPPP), University of Malaya (UM)

Marjan Mohammadjafari


University of Malaya (UM)

June 19, 2014

International Education Studies, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 52-62, 2014


Abstract:

This paper discusses plagiarism origins, and the ethical solutions to prevent it. It also reviews some unethical approaches, which may be used to decrease the plagiarism rate in academic writings. We propose eight ethical techniques to avoid unconscious and accidental plagiarism in manuscripts without using online systems such as Turnitin and/or iThenticate for cross checking and plagiarism detection. The efficiency of the proposed techniques is evaluated on five different texts using students individually. After application of the techniques on the texts, they were checked by Turnitin to produce the plagiarism and similarity report. At the end, the “effective factor” of each method has been compared with each other; and the best result went to a hybrid combination of all techniques to avoid plagiarism. The hybrid of ethical methods decreased the plagiarism rate reported by Turnitin from nearly 100% to the average of 8.4% on 5 manuscripts.

 

Number of Pages in PDF File: 11

Keywords: Plagiarism, Plagiarism Prevention, Academic Cheating, Ethical Approaches, Unethical Approaches

JEL Classification: L11, L1, L2, M11, M12, M1, M54, Q1, O1, O3, P42, P24, P29, Q31, Q32, L17

Accepted Paper Series

Download This Paper

Date posted: June 24, 2014

Suggested Citation

Bakhtiyari, Kaveh and Salehi, Hadi and Embi, Mohamed Amin and Shakiba, Masoud and Zavvari, Azam and Shahbazi-Moghadam, Masoomeh and Ale Ebrahim, Nader and Mohammadjafari, Marjan, Ethical and Unethical Methods of Plagiarism Prevention in Academic Writing (June 19, 2014). International Education Studies, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 52-62, 2014. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2457669
Posted in Journal Article, Publications | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Effective Strategies for Increasing Citation Frequency


Nader Ale Ebrahim


Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya (UM); Research Support Unit, Centre of Research Services, Institute of Research Management and Monitoring (IPPP), University of Malaya (UM)

Hadi Salehi


Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch

Mohamed Amin Embi


Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia – Faculty of Education

Farid Habibi


University of Economic Sciences

Hossein Gholizadeh


University of Malaya (UM) – Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering

Seyed Mohammad Motahar


Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia – Faculty of Information Science and Technology

Ali Ordi


Universiti Teknologi Malaysia – Advance Informatics School (AIS)

October 23, 2013

International Education Studies, Vol. 6, No. 11, pp. 93-99, 2013


Abstract:

Due to the effect of citation impact on The Higher Education (THE) world university ranking system, most of the researchers are looking for some helpful techniques to increase their citation record. This paper by reviewing the relevant articles extracts 33 different ways for increasing the citations possibilities. The results show that the article visibility has tended to receive more download and citations. This is probably the first study to collect over 30 different ways to improve the citation record. Further study is needed to explore and expand these techniques in specific fields of study in order to make the results more precisely.

 

Number of Pages in PDF File: 7

Keywords: University ranking, Improve citation, Citation frequency, Research impact, Open access, h-index

JEL Classification: L11, L1, L2, M11, M12, M1, M54, Q1, O1, O3, P42, P24, P29, Q31, Q32, L17

Accepted Paper Series

Download This Paper

Date posted: October 25, 2013

Suggested Citation

Ale Ebrahim, Nader and Salehi, Hadi and Embi, Mohamed Amin and Habibi, Farid and Gholizadeh, Hossein and Motahar, Seyed Mohammad and Ordi, Ali, Effective Strategies for Increasing Citation Frequency (October 23, 2013). International Education Studies, Vol. 6, No. 11, pp. 93-99, 2013. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2344585
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Effective Strategies for Increasing Citation Frequency

Nader Ale Ebrahim1, Hadi Salehi2, Mohamed Amin Embi3, Farid Habibi Tanha4, Hossein Gholizadeh5, Seyed Mohammad Motahar6 & Ali Ordi7

1Research Support Unit, Centre of Research Services, Institute of Research Management and Monitoring (IPPP), University of Malaya, Malaysia

2Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran

3Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Malaysia

4Department of Financial Sciences , University of Economic Sciences, Tehran, 1593656311, Iran

5Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

6Faculty of Information Science and Technology,Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Malaysia

7Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Advance Informatics School (AIS), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Correspondence: Nader Ale Ebrahim, 1Research Support Unit, Centre of Research Services, Institute of Research Management and Monitoring (IPPP), University of Malaya, 50603 , Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Tel: +603 7967 7355, e-mail: aleebrahim@um.edu.my

 

Received: September 12, 2013 Accepted: October 12, 2013 Online Published: November xx, 2013

doi:10.5539/           URL: http://dx.doi.org/

 

 

Abstract

Due to the effect of citation impact on The Higher Education (THE) world university ranking system, most of the researchers are looking for some helpful techniques to increase their citation record. This paper by reviewing the relevant articles extracts 33 different ways for increasing the citations possibilities. The results show that the article visibility has tended to receive more download and citations. This is probably the first study to collect over 30 different ways to improve the citation record. Further study is needed to explore and expand these techniques in specific fields of study in order to make the results more precisely.

Keywords: University ranking, Improve citation, Citation frequency, Research impact, Open access, h-index

 

1.       Introduction

The research output is an essential part of an institution’s measure and evaluation of research quality. Previously, the number of publication and journal impact factors were the means to derive research ratings. Recent approach for rating research quality rely on the number of citations per article. Citation shows that how many times an article has been cited by other articles (Fooladi et al. 2013). Citations to research publications are a quality indicator, important for both the author and the affiliated university (Jones and Evans 2013). Most researchers are evaluated based upon their publications as well as the numbers of citations their publications receive. One of the key ways to increase citations is to expose the research output to the widest possible audience. If people are unaware of the research, they won’t be citing it. The more researchers and students in other fields who have heard about the research, the researcher will receive more citations. Citations to an article might strongly depend on the visibility, rather than the merit of the article (Marashi et al. 2013). Ale Ebrahim (2012) argues that publishing a high quality paper in scientific journals will be a halfway of receiving citation in the future. The rest of the way is advertising and disseminating the publications by using the proper “Research Tools”. Post-print publishing means to make peer-reviewed, published research articles freely available to anyone with an internet connection, often greatly increases the citation frequency of articles (LiU E-Press 2007). The following section introduces 33 ways which may help the researchers to improve the number of their citations.

2.       33 ways for improving citations

2.1 Use a unique name consistently throughout academic careers.

Authors are highly advised to use the same variation of their name consistently throughout their academic careers. If the name is a common name, consider adding your full middle name to distinguish it from other authors. Consistency enhances retrieval (Sarli and Holmes 2011).

2.2 Use a standardized institutional affiliation and address, using no abbreviations (Sarli and Holmes 2011).

Standardization of author affiliation is important to make sure work can be attributed to the correct author and institution (Jones and Evans 2013). Providing accurate contact details are essential so that researchers can contact directly for queries, further information and discussions about the publication (Wong 2008).

2.3 Repeat key phrases in the abstract while writing naturally.

Make some key phrases of your study and repeat them in the abstract page of your paper. Since search engines and citation trackers search the abstract of your article, the normal repetition of key words increases the chance of your paper to be retrieved more easily (Sarli and Holmes, 2011; Jones and Evans, 2013).

2.4 Assign keyword terms to the manuscript (Sarli and Holmes 2011).

Using keywords is a vital part of abstract writing, because of the practice of retrieving information electronically: keywords act as the search term. Use keywords that are specific, and that reflect what is essential about the paper. Put yourself in the position of someone researching in your field: what would you look for? Consider also whether you can use any of the current “buzzwords” (Emerald Guide 2012).

2.5 Make a unique phrase that reflects author’s research interest and use it throughout academic life.

Add the name of study in the title of all publications and use the same title/ name consistently (Sarli and Holmes 2011).

2.6 Publish in journal with high impact factor (Vanclay 2013).

The most effective strategy to increase citation rates is publishing in a journal with higher impact factor (Vanclay 2013). Dhawan and Gupta (2005) studied 1101 papers and found that articles published in high impact factor journals increase the probability of getting cited.

2.7 Self-archive articles.

Free online availability increases a paper’s impact (Lawrence 2001); therefore, maximize the visibility of your research by making copies of your articles available online (Jones and Evans 2013). Gargouri et al. (2010) have made a strong and a declarative link between self-archiving and increased citation performance.

2.8 Keep your professional web pages and published lists up to date (Jones and Evans 2013).

The advantage of self-archive on the web and make a link between published lists is obvious. Freely accessible articles increase citations by 50% or more (Harnad 2006).

2.9 Make your research easy to find, especially for online searchers (Jones and Evans 2013).

Jamali and Nikzad (2011) investigated 2172 articles and found that there is a positive relationship between the number of downloads and citations. Research shows that there is a correlation between highly cited articles and the likelihood of it being online (Vaughan and Shaw 2003).

2.10 Open Access (OA) increases citation rate (MacCallum and Parthasarathy 2006).

Free access increases citation rates, searching online is more efficient and following hyperlinks quickly leads researchers to their prevailing opinion (Evans 2008). Open Access has a positive impact on growth of citations (Table 1) (Swan 2010).

2.11 Deposit paper in Open Access repository (Frost 2009).

For example, Ray Frost is a chemist who publishes prolifically. About three years ago, he began depositing his articles in the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) repository. So far, he has deposited over 300 of his articles. Figure 1 (derived data from the Web of Science) shows the patterns of publication and citations to those publications. When Ray started putting his articles into the QUT repository, the numbers of citations began to take off. The latest count is 1200 in one year. Even though Ray’s publication rate went up a bit over this period, the increase in citations is impressive (Frost 2009).

 

Table 1 Effect of Open Access (OA) to increase the level of citations (Swan 2010).

Size of OA citation advantage when found
(and where explicitly stated by discipline)

 

% increase in citations with Open Access
Physics/astronomy 170 to 580
Mathematics 35 to 91
Biology -5 to 36
Electrical engineering 51
Computer science 157
Political science 86
Philosophy 45
Medicine 300 to 450
Communication studies (IT) 200
Agricultural sciences 200 to 600

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1 The patterns of citations to Ray Frost’s articles that are deposited in the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) repository (Frost 2009).

2.12 Publish with international authors (Pislyakov and Shukshina 2012).

Citation analysis shows that papers with international co-authors are cited up to four times more often than those without international co-authors (Jones and Evans 2013). Krause (2009) argued that articles published with multi-countries or multi-institutes collaborations get cited more. Authors who are often involved in international collaboration received more citations (Aksnes 2003).

2.13 Team-authored articles get cited more (Krause 2009).

Wuchty et al. (2007) have used 19.9 million papers over 5o years and demonstrated that team-authored articles typically produce more frequently cited research than individuals. A recent study by Cotropia and Petherbridge (2013) in law review articles which were published within two decades also demonstrated that team research is on average more frequently cited than individual research. Typically high cited articles are authored by a large number of scientists (Aksnes 2003).

2.14 Use more references.

There is a ridiculously strong relationship between the number of citations a paper receives and the number of its references (Corbyn 2010).

2.15 Publish a longer paper.

A longer paper gathers more citations (Ball 2008; Abt 1998). Hamrick et al. (2010) indicated that longer papers are associated with more citations.

2.16 Publish papers with a Nobel laureates (Ball 2011).

Some landmark papers of Nobel laureates quite quickly give their authors a sudden boost in citation rate and this boost extends to the author’s earlier papers too, even if they were in unrelated areas (Ball 2011).

2.17 Contribute to Wikipedia (SAGE 2012).

Try to contribute in Wikipedia. As a good example, one paper (Nader Ale Ebrahim et al. 2009) that was used as a reference in defining virtual teams in Wikipedia has received significant citations in comparison to the rest of the articles from the same author.

2.18 Start blogging (SAGE 2012).

Use blogs and podcasts to leverage on-going researcher discussion on the Internet (Taylor & Francis Group 2012a). Web 2.0 tools such as wikis and blogs can be created to inform, describe and link people’s research interests and publications (Wong 2008). Authors are encouraged to promote their papers through the addition of links which web search engines such as Google take particular notice for their page ranks (Smith 2005).

2.19 Join academic social networking sites (Taylor & Francis Group 2012b).

Increasing the availability of articles through social networking sites broadens dissemination, increases use, and enhances professional visibility which lead to increased citations and usage. Academica is an online social reference tool that allows reference sharing among academics and researchers. Alternatively, researchers may use Citeulike to share their interests in research publications (Wong 2008). Academica, Citeulike, ResearchGate and Linkedin are just a few examples of knowledge sharing tools to make others aware of research articles that may be of relevance to authors and hence get cited.

2.20 Write a review paper.

Reviews are more likely to be cited than original research papers. Some types of articles including editorials, letters to editors, news items, meeting abstracts, and case studies are generally poorly cited (Taylor & Francis Group 2012a). Authors seeking to be well cited should aim to write comprehensive and substantial review articles, and submit them to journals with a high impact factor that carry previous articles on the topic (Vanclay 2013).

2.21 Papers published after having first been rejected elsewhere receive significantly more citations (Ball 2012).

Submission history affected post-publication impact, resubmissions from other journals received significantly more citations than first-intent submissions (Calcagno et al. 2012).

2.22 Papers with a larger number of “callouts” be likely to receive a higher number of citations (Hamrick et al. 2010).

A “callout” is a phrase or sentence from the paper that is displayed in a different font, somewhere in the paper. Generally, callouts are inserted by the editorial staff to call attention to potentially interesting aspects of a paper (Hamrick et al. 2010).

2.23 Avoid to select a question type of title.

Jamali and Nikzad (2011) investigated 2172 articles and found different types of title effects on the number of downloads and citations. Especially articles with question type titles tend to be downloaded more but cited less than the others.

2.24 Sharing detailed research data

Open data (Publicly-available datasets) are significantly associated with a 69% increase in citations to articles that accompany the data. This correlation is independent of Journal Impact Factor, country of authors and time since publication (Piwowar et al. 2007; Swan 2010).

2.25 Publish across disciplines

Publishing across disciplines has been found to increase citation e.g. chemistry, biological science and physics (Ortega and Antell 2006).

2.26 Present a working paper (Taylor & Francis Group 2012a).

Try to go to a prestigious conference and present some parts of your research or publish working paper. Working papers are freely available before and after the articles are published. Researchers may upload their working papers into open access repositories including the personal websites or more formal repositories such as arXiv and SSRN (McCabe 2011).

2.27 Publish your article in one of the journals everyone in your discipline reads (Taylor & Francis Group 2012a).

Choosing a journal that matches with a researcher’s field of study is thus very important because it makes it more likely that the article receives more citation. A journal which covers a broad range of disciplines may be the best.

2.28 Publicize yourself – link your latest published article to your email signature (Taylor & Francis Group 2012a).

A great way to spread researchers’ outputs and get extra attention of email recipient is to add a link to the latest publication. This little section of contact information that most people ignore, provides a good platform for publication marketing.

2.29 Publish your work in a journal with the highest number of abstracting and indexing (Nader Ale Ebrahim 2012).

Abstracting and indexing services generate visibility for the material published in most journals (Garfield and Merton 1979). Citation potential increases by attributing to the high visibility of scientific materials. Therefore, a journal with the highest number of abstracting and indexing in different databases can be a good target.

2.30 Create a podcast describing the research project.

Research is not just text and figures. Create a podcast describing the research project and submit the podcast to YouTube or Vimeo (Sarli and Holmes 2011). Podcasts can describe the research efforts. Video is an increasingly important way for researchers to communicate their results and welcome submissions of podcasts from authors and editors (Sarli and Holmes 2011).

2.31 Make an online CV Like ORCID or ResearcherID.

Online CV makes a link between the list of published papers and open access versions of relevant articles (Sahu 2005). Online CV increases researchers’ output visibility to the academic community.

2.32 Publish tutorials papers.

Tutorial paper is “a paper that organizes and introduces work in the field. A tutorial paper assumes its audience is inexpert; it emphasizes the basic concepts of the field and provides concrete examples that embody these concepts (ACM 2013)”. Tutorials papers tend to have a higher number of citations (Hamrick et al. 2010).

and finally;

2.33 Use all “Enhancing Visibility and Impact” tools which are available on http://www.mindmeister.com/39583892/research-tools-by-nader-ale-ebrahim.

Familiarity with academic advertisement tools allows the researcher to increase his/her h-index in the short time. H-index shows the academicians’ influences in the specified field of research (Aghaei Chadegani et al. 2013). Therefore, a person with higher levels of h-index has higher quality publications with high amount of citations (Nader Ale Ebrahim 2012). The advertisement section of the above mind map includes the tools which can assist the researchers to disseminate and increase visibility of their published papers.

 

3.       Conclusion

Publishing research output in high-impact journals is a primary concern of the researchers. The researchers also need to consider different ways to receive more citations after publishing a paper. When their works are published, they are concerned about citation which is directly related to the paper’s quality and visibility. The researchers cannot increase the quality of their published papers; therefore, they can apply some of these 33 key points to increase the visibility of their published papers.

 

 

 

References

Abt, H. A. (1998). Why some papers have long citation lifetimes. [10.1038/27355]. Nature 395(6704), 756-757, doi:10.1038/27355.

ACM (2013). ACM Computing Surveys. http://csur.acm.org/author_info.html. Accessed 30 May 2013.

Aghaei Chadegani, A., Salehi, H., Yunus, M. M., Farhadi, H., Fooladi, M., Farhadi, M., et al. (2013). A Comparison between Two Main Academic Literature Collections: Web of Science and Scopus Databases. Asian Social Science, 9(5), 18-26, doi:10.5539/ass.v9n5p18.

Aksnes, D. W. (2003). Characteristics of highly cited papers. Research Evaluation 12(3), 159-170, doi:10.3152/147154403781776645.

Ale Ebrahim, N. (2012). Publication Marketing Tools “Enhancing Research Visibility and Improving Citations”. Research Tools in Education Series, 1(2), 1-86

Ale Ebrahim, N., Ahmed, S., & Taha, Z. (2009). Virtual R & D teams in small and medium enterprises: A literature review. [Review]. Scientific Research and Essay, 4(13), 1575–1590.

Ball, P. (2008). A longer paper gathers more citations. Nature 455(7211), 274-275, doi:10.1038/455274a.

Are scientific reputations boosted artificially? (2011, 6 May). Nature

Ball, P. (2012, 11 October). Rejection improves eventual impact of manuscripts. Nature

Calcagno, V., Demoinet, E., Gollner, K., Guidi, L., Ruths, D., & de Mazancourt, C. (2012). Flows of Research Manuscripts Among Scientific Journals Reveal Hidden Submission Patterns. Science 338(6110), 1065-1069, doi:10.1126/science.1227833.

Corbyn, Z. (2010). An easy way to boost a paper’s citations. Nature doi:10.1038/news.2010.406

Cotropia, C. A., & Petherbridge, L. (2013). The Dominance of Teams in the Production of Legal Knowledge. Loyola-LA Legal Studies.

Dhawan, S., & Gupta, B. (2005). Evaluation of Indian physics research on journal impact factor and citations count: A comparative study. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, 25(3), 3-7.

Emerald Guide (2012). How to… write an abstract. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/authors/guides/write/abstracts.htm?part=1. Accessed 09 May 2013.

Evans, J. A. (2008). Electronic Publication and the Narrowing of Science and Scholarship. Science 321(5887), 395-399, doi:10.1126/science.1150473.

Fooladi, M., Salehi, H., Yunus, M. M., Farhadi, M., Aghaei Chadegani, A., Farhadi, H., et al. (2013). Do Criticisms Overcome the Praises of Journal Impact Factor? Asian Social Science, 9(5), 176-182, doi:10.5539/ass.v9n5p176.

Frost, R. (2009). Case study: Open Access visibility and impact of an individual researcher. http://www.openscholarship.org/jcms/c_6220/case-study-open-access-visibility-and-impact-of-an-individual-researcher. Accessed 9 May 2013.

Garfield, E., & Merton, R. K. (1979). Perspective on Citation Analysis of Scientists. In Citation indexing: Its theory and application in science, technology, and humanities (Vol. 8): Wiley New York.

Gargouri, Y., Hajjem, C., Larivière, V., Gingras, Y., Carr, L., Brody, T., et al. (2010). Self-Selected or Mandated, Open Access Increases Citation Impact for Higher Quality Research. PLoS ONE, 5(10), e13636, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013636.

Hamrick, T. A., Fricker, R. D., & Brown, G. G. (2010). Assessing What Distinguishes Highly Cited from Less-Cited Papers Published in Interfaces. Interfaces 40(6), 454-464, doi:10.1287/inte.1100.0527.

Harnad, S. (2006). Publish or perish—self-archive to flourish: the green route to open access. ERCIM News, 64.

Jamali, H. R., & Nikzad, M. (2011). Article title type and its relation with the number of downloads and citations. Scientometrics 88(2), 653-661, doi:10.1007/s11192-011-0412-z.

Jones, K., & Evans, K. (2013). Good Practices for Improving Citations to your Published Work. (pp. 2). University of BATH.

Krause, K. (2009). Increasing your Article’s Citation Rates. Open Access Week.,

Lawrence, S. (2001). Free online availability substantially increases a paper’s impact. [10.1038/35079151]. Nature 411(6837), 521-521.

LiU E-Press (2007). One way to increase citation frequency. http://www.ep.liu.se/authorinf/postpubl.en.asp. Accessed 9 May 2013.

MacCallum, C. J., & Parthasarathy, H. (2006). Open Access Increases Citation Rate. PLoS Biol, 4(5), e176, doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040176.

Marashi, S.-A., Seyed Mohammad Amin, H.-N., Alishah, K., Hadi, M., Karimi, A., Hosseinian, S., et al. (2013). Impact of Wikipedia on citation trends. EXCLI Journal, 12, 15-19, doi:citeulike-article-id:12202824.

McCabe, M. J. (2011). Online Access and the Scientific Journal Market: An Economist’s Perspective. (Vol. Draft Report for the National Academy of Sciences, pp. 1-36): University of Michigan and SKEMA Business School.

Ortega, L., & Antell, K. (2006). Tracking Cross-Disciplinary Information Use by Author Affiliation: Demonstration of a Method. College & Research Libraries 67(5), 446-462.

Pislyakov, V., & Shukshina, E. (2012). Measuring Excellence in Russia: Highly Cited Papers, Leading Institutions, Patterns of National and International Collaboration. Paper presented at the Proceedings of STI 2012, Montréal,

Piwowar, H. A., Day, R. S., & Fridsma, D. B. (2007). Sharing Detailed Research Data Is Associated with Increased Citation Rate. PLoS ONE, 2(3), e308, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000308.

SAGE (2012). 10 Ways to Increase Usage and Citation of your Published Article Using Social Media. http://www.sagepub.com/authors/journal/10ways.sp. Accessed 9 May 2013.

Sahu, D. (2005). Open Access: Why India Should Brace it? In (pp. 1-49).

Sarli, C., & Holmes, K. (2011). Strategies for Enhancing the Impact of Research. https://becker.wustl.edu/impact-assessment/strategies. Accessed 9 May 2013.

Smith, A. G. (2005). Citations and Links as a Measure of Effectiveness of Online LIS Journals. IFLA Journal, 31(1), 76-84, doi:10.1177/0340035205052651.

Swan, A. (2010). The Open Access citation advantage: Studies and results to date.

Taylor & Francis Group (2012a). Optimize citations. http://journalauthors.tandf.co.uk/beyondpublication/optimizingcitations.asp. Accessed 9 May 2013.

Taylor & Francis Group (2012b). Promote your article. http://journalauthors.tandf.co.uk/beyondpublication/promotearticle.asp. Accessed 9 May 2013.

Vanclay, J. K. (2013). Factors affecting citation rates in environmental science. Journal of Informetrics, 7(2), 265-271, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2012.11.009.

Vaughan, L., & Shaw, D. (2003). Bibliographic and Web citations: What is the difference? Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 54(14), 1313-1322, doi:10.1002/asi.10338.

Wong, R. (2008). Ways to Maximise Citations for Researchers. (pp. 1-7). University of Sheffield.

Wuchty, S., Jones, B. F., & Uzzi, B. (2007). The Increasing Dominance of Teams in Production of Knowledge. Science 316(5827), 1036-1039, doi:10.1126/science.1136099.

 

 

Copyrights

Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

 

Posted in Publications | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Visibility and Citation Impact


Nader Ale Ebrahim


Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya (UM); Research Support Unit, Centre of Research Services, Institute of Research Management and Monitoring (IPPP), University of Malaya (UM)

Hadi Salehi


Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch

Mohamed Amin Embi


Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia – Faculty of Education

Farid Habibi


University of Economic Sciences

Hossein Gholizadeh


University of Malaya (UM) – Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering

Seyed Mohammad Motahar


Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia – Faculty of Information Science and Technology

March 30, 2014

International Education Studies, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 120-125, 2014


Abstract:

The number of publications is the first criteria for assessing a researcher output. However, the main measurement for author productivity is the number of citations, and citations are typically related to the paper’s visibility. In this paper, the relationship between article visibility and the number of citations is investigated. A case study of two researchers who are using publication marketing tools confirmed that the article visibility will greatly improve the citation impact. Some strategies to make the publications available to a larger audience have been presented at the end of this paper.

 

Number of Pages in PDF File: 6

Keywords: H-index, research tools, increase citations, publication marketing, bibliometrics, improve citations, maximized research visibility, increase research impact

JEL Classification: L11, L1, L2, M11, M12, M1, M54, Q1, O1, O3, P42, P24, P29, Q31, Q32, L17

Accepted Paper Series

Download This Paper

Date posted: April 3, 2014

Suggested Citation

Ale Ebrahim, Nader and Salehi, Hadi and Embi, Mohamed Amin and Habibi, Farid and Gholizadeh, Hossein and Motahar, Seyed Mohammad, Visibility and Citation Impact (March 30, 2014). International Education Studies, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 120-125, 2014. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2419315
Posted in Journal Article, Publications | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment